Shape step 1 merchandise the type of alcohol preferred centered on gender and you will ages
Supine blood pressure level (BP) was counted on the right case using a hands-on mercury sphygmomanometer, immediately following an effective ten-minute sleep months. The first as well as the 5th Korotkoff stages were used so you’re able to identify systolic BP (SBP) and you may diastolic BP (DBP), respectively. The newest indicate off three measurements are thought to be the fresh BP really worth. PP is recognized as the difference between SBP and you will DBP. Sides circumference (WC) is actually counted having fun with an inelastic recording place midway between your all the way down ribs and you may iliac crests into mid-axillary range. Standard physical variables (enzymatic means, automat HITACHI 917 (Roche, Meylan, France); colorimetric means for albumin amount and you can hematology: ABX, Pentra 120, Meylan, France) were measured less than fasting criteria; high-occurrence lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) try mentioned by the direct enzymatic assay which have cyclodextrin (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). An asleep electrocardiogram is recorded. Breathing setting was reviewed because of the spirometry by the calculating forced expiratory frequency (FEV1). Cigarette smoking application (never cigarette smoker, ex-smoker and you may most recent smoker), physical activity (regular physical working out: sure if any), private medical background, current medications and you may alcohol consumption, social standing and you may occupational pastime was reviewed having fun with a self-applied questionnaire. Fret and you can despair ratings was in fact examined because of the confirmed surveys (Beck mais aussi al., 1974; Cohen et al., 1983); Exposed Fitness Updates (SHS) score was built-up having a home-estimate with the a scale anywhere between 0 and ten. Liquor intake try quantified once the amount of standardized cups of alcoholic beverages (10 g for each and every cup) ate daily. Each kind of alcohol (such as for instance cider and you can alcohol, wines, appetizer) are submitted. Complete alcohol consumption was determined given that amount of all sorts regarding alcoholic drinks consumed and the related wide variety (as g out of alcoholic beverages) is actually projected. Most of the logical and you can physical variables were evaluated on the same day of your test.
The brand new IPC Cardio acquired agreement about Federal Panel of data and you may Municipal Liberty in order to perform these types of analyses. All of the victims offered the informed agree at the time of this new examination.
Alcohol consumption is actually split up into five categories : (1) zero alcoholic beverages, (2) reduced alcohol consumption (less than you to mug every day), (3) reasonable alcoholic beverages (between you to definitely and you may around three cups a day), (4) highest alcohol consumption (over about three cups) and you may (5) subjects exactly who in earlier times ate alcoholic beverages however, whom no longer performed (former drinkers). Thanks to this new heterogeneity on the number of former drinkers (time elapsed because the cessation from alcohol based drinks, reason for that it cessation, etc.), studies in this category were examined independently.
For quantitative variables, the four first groups were compared by multivariate model analysis, which included age to take into account the difference in age observed between the different groups; respiratory function (FEV1) was compared across the groups before and after further adjustment for tobacco status. For qualitative variables, comparisons were made using the ? 2 test. As one may hypothesize that the relationships between alcohol and health and social status are not identical in males and females, we analyzed these relationships on the basis of stratification by gender. All parameters associated with alcohol consumption in univariate analysis were included in a multivariate model. Forward regression analysis was carried out and all variables remaining in the model were significant with P<0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS statistical software (version 8.02; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).
Data collected from a total of 149 773 subjects (97 406 men and 52 367 women) were analyzed. The average ages of men and women were 47.6±15 and 47.0±12 years, respectively. In this population, 13.7% of men and 23.9% of women were abstinent (4.5% former drinkers and 9.2% never drinkers in men; 20.1% never drinkers and 3.1% former drinkers in women). Total alcohol intake increased with age both in men and in women. With the exception of the subgroup of young subjects (<30 years of age), alcoholic beverages mainly consisted of wine. In addition, wine consumption increased with age, whereas those of beer and appetizers decreased (P<0.0001).